The development footprint and future of packaging design (I)
-, the function and form evolution of packaging
the ancient Egyptians believed that the soul would be free from the body after death and wander in the universe. If the soul came back and found that the body was gone, it would leave forever. Therefore, ways must be found to preserve the remains. With the progress of human civilization, funerals have become meticulous and complex. People use stones or bricks to build tombs, especially with the birth of the powerful ruling class. Huge tombs like pyramids have also appeared. Although the human body is in a luxurious tomb environment, it will soon rot after contacting with water, air and bacteria. So people tried to take out the human viscera, and made the corpse into a mummy with a special potion
the mummy needs to undergo about 70 days of anti-corrosion treatment, then wrap the body with 20-30m long linen, cover it with large pieces of cloth, and wrap it with cloth strips again as before, which needs to be repeated several times. Many cloth strips are written with mantras and the names of the dead. The faces wrapped in cloth are also painted with the faces of the dead. The wrapped body should be coated with resin to isolate the air before being put into the coffin
this may be the first human behavior to use "packaging" to keep objects for a long time. It has a strong purpose and uses the most advanced technology that human beings could master at that time. Since then, the "packaging" behavior has continuously appeared in many fields such as people's life, labor and sacrifice, and timely combined with the application of the emerging new scientific and technological achievements
in the long course of human civilization evolution, every scientific and technological invention, social change, productivity improvement, progress of people's lifestyle and environmental change will greatly affect and promote the function and form of packaging. From the development and evolution of packaging, we can clearly see the footprints of human civilization. Packaging design, as a cultural form of human civilization, understanding its development and evolution is of great practical significance to today's design work
1. the original form of packaging -- containers that pursue aesthetic feeling
from today's understanding of the concept of packaging, containers can not be regarded as packaging in the real sense, but they have some basic functions of packaging, such as protecting the preserved objects, making it easy to use and carry. And the container has a long history of development, which has also played a role in promoting the emergence of packaging. In China, the ancient working people created various beautiful containers with wisdom and hard work. Just as Marx said, "animals create according to the needs of the kind they belong to, but people are good at producing according to the needs of each kind, and are good at handling objects with appropriate measures at the beginning. Therefore, people create according to the law of beauty"
the origin of pottery in China is very early. In 1962, pottery more than 8000 years ago was unearthed in Xianrendong, Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. Especially in the late Neolithic age, pottery making technology has developed to a very high level. People use natural hematite pigments and manganese compounds to draw decorative patterns on pottery and burn exquisite colored pottery. The decorative patterns of painted pottery include natural phenomena such as plants, animals, mountains and rivers, as well as figures and universal material testing machines. It is best to use oil to abstract geometric figures according to the instructions. The modeling technique of the pattern is concise and general, full of rhythm, smooth and vigorous, and strong in decoration, which fully reflects the ancient human pursuit and exploration of modeling language and formal beauty
(2) bronze ware
as early as the Shang Dynasty, bronze ware was widely used in China, but it was mainly used by slave owners and dignitaries to meet their luxurious life, which ordinary working people could not afford. Bronze ware has a variety of shapes, which can be divided into cooking utensils, food utensils, wine utensils, water utensils and so on. Cooking utensils mainly include: tripod (meat cooking utensils), pan (sound power, porridge cooking utensils), (sound performance, cooking utensils), etc. The food utensils are mainly made of rice (sound track), which are used to hold staple foods such as millet and millet, which is equivalent to the current bowl. Due to the many sacrificial rituals of slave owners' lives, the shapes of wine vessels are very rich, mainly including Jue (drinking and wine warming utensils), horn (drinking fetus), Gu (Yin Gu, drinking utensils), Chen (Yin Zhi, drinking utensils), as well as pot and you (Zhiyou). Since last year, the medical equipment industry has been intensively released into the policy period, such as drinking (Yin Gong), Zun and so on, as well as Dan (Yin he, wine mixing utensils). The water vessel has a discriminating plate, etc
the creation of bronzes reflects the ancient people's mastery of manufacturing technology and decorative aesthetic principles. The tripod with three legs forms a strong sense of stability; The slender and rhythmic shape of the Gu is like a flower in bud. In addition to the plane patterns, there are also many three-dimensional sculpture decorations. For example, actively implementing the social responsibility of state-owned enterprises to make the cover button into the shape of a bird, and the cap of a cup into the shape of a double horned beast, which greatly enriched the shape of bronze ware
China began to use lacquer as a coating. It is said that it began in the Yuxia era more than 4000 years ago, but the actual use of lacquerware may be earlier than the legend. In 1976, wooden painted bowls and canisters dating back to about 7000 years were found in Hemudu site in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province. In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the lacquer craft had reached a fairly high level. In 1973, dozens of pieces of lacquer ware were found in the tombs of the Shang Dynasty in Taixi, Haocheng. These lacquer ware were vermilion ground, black lacquer patterns, staggered up and down, forming a variety of exquisite patterns. In the later historical development, lacquerware, as an exotic flower of Chinese traditional crafts, has been continuously carried forward. In each historical period, new production techniques will appear, making lacquerware more colorful. In the figure paintings of Chinese dynasties, we can often see lacquerware as props, such as makeup boxes, food boxes, etc. It even had an impact on European culture. In the 18th century, the famous British furniture craftsman Tom zeppert designed a furniture with unique decorative style according to the characteristics of Chinese lacquerware, which was all the rage. In the history of furniture, it was known as "the zeppert era included tensile, compressive, low cycle and high cycle fatigue experiments of materials and parts"